Specialists of the Russian Space Systems holding (RSS, part of the Roscosmos State Corporation) have begun to create multi-zone scanning devices (MSS) for a new generation of Russian spacecraft of the Meteor series. Thanks to the improved MSU, scientists, meteorologists and emergency workers will receive digital multispectral images of the earth's surface for forecasting and eliminating natural disasters, emergencies, monitoring weather and natural phenomena, and developing Russia's agriculture.
The new generation LSUs are designed to operate in four different orbits. Such a construction of the orbital constellation will make it possible to shoot the entire Earth every 3 hours. The new equipment will carry out round-the-clock satellite imagery of objects and the Earth's surface in 20 spectral channels with increased accuracy and resolution, which will make it possible to observe a wide range of terrestrial processes and phenomena. For the first time a device of this level is being created exclusively on the basis of domesticelectronic components.
A unique radiation cooling system will protect multi-element photodetectors from external heat fluxes and will keep their temperature unchanged - 80K. This will allow MSU to measure the thermal radiation of observed objects on Earth with an accuracy of 0.05 degrees Celsius.
High requirements for the signal-to-noise ratio of the new MSU determine the quality of the resulting images. For this purpose, a special matrix photodetector has been developed in the RCS on the basis of modern semiconductor technologies for the construction of integrated circuits (CMOS technologies). Each element of the matrix has a separate built-in amplifier and analog-to-digital converter. Thanks to this, the output of the photodetector is an original digital image, and not an analog one, as in systems of previous generations.
The Russian orbital constellation of Earth remote sensing satellites (ERS) includes, in particular, spacecraft of the Meteor and Canopus series. In July 2022, it was 8 years of work in orbit of Meteora-M No. 2, five years of work in orbit of Canopus-V-IK, and three years of work on Meteora-M No. 2-2. The satellites successfully monitor the climate and the environment, natural and man-made emergencies, and transmit signals from the global search and rescue system COSPAS-SARSAT. During their operation, the reliability of the onboard equipment developed and manufactured by the RCS was confirmed.